2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) adsorptive removal by algal magnetic activated carbon nanocomposite

Ramesh Vinayagam, Saivedh Ganga, Gokulakrishnan Murugesan, Gayathri Rangasamy, Ruchi Bhole, Louella Concepta Goveas, Thivaharan Varadavenkatesan, Niyam Dave, Adithya Samanth, V. Radhika Devi, Raja Selvaraj

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


In the present study, ferric oxide nanoparticles impregnated with activated carbon from Ulva prolifera biomass (UPAC−Fe2O3) were prepared and employed to remove 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) by adsorption. The UPAC−Fe2O3 nanocomposite was characterized for its structural and functional properties by a variety of techniques. The nanocomposite had a jagged, irregular surface with pores due to uneven scattering of Fe2O3 nanoparticles, whereas elemental analysis portrayed the incidence of carbon, oxygen, and iron. XRD analysis established the crystalline and amorphous planes corresponding to the iron oxide and carbon phase respectively. FT-IR analyzed the functional groups that confirmed the integration of Fe2O3 nanoparticles onto nanocomposite surfaces. VSM and XPS studies uncovered the superparamagnetic nature and presence of carbon and Fe2O3, respectively, in the UPAC−Fe2O3 nanocomposite. While the surface area was 292.51 m2/g, the size and volume of the pores were at 2.61 nm and 0.1906 cm3/g, respectively, indicating the mesoporous nature and suitability of the nanocomposites that could be used as adsorbents. Adsorptive removal of 2,4-D by nanocomposite for variations in process parameters like pH, dosage, agitation speed, adsorption time, and 2,4-D concentration was studied. The adsorption of 2,4-D by UPAC−Fe2O3 nanocomposite was monolayer chemisorption owing to Langmuir isotherm behavior along with a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum adsorption capacity and second order rate constant values were 60.61 mg/g and 0.0405 g/mg min respectively. Thermodynamic analysis revealed the spontaneous and feasible endothermic adsorption process. These findings confirm the suitability of the synthesized UPAC−Fe2O3 nanocomposite to be used as an adsorbent for toxic herbicide waste streams.

Original languageEnglish
Article number136883
Publication statusPublished - 01-2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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