As per global cancer statistics of 2020, female breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and also the foremost cause of cancer death in women. Traditional treatments include a number of negative effects, making it necessary to investigate novel smart drug delivery methods and identify new therapeutic approaches. Efforts for developing novel strategies for breast cancer therapy are being devised worldwide by various research groups. Currently, two-dimensional black phosphorus nanosheets (BPNSs) have attracted considerable attention and are best suited for theranostic nanomedicine. Particularly, their characteristics, including drug loading efficacy, biocompatibility, optical, thermal, electrical, and phototherapeutic characteristics, support their growing demand as a potential substitute for graphene-based nanomaterials in biomedical applications. In this review, we have explained different platforms of BP nanomaterials for breast cancer management, their structures, functionalization approaches, and general methods of synthesis. Various characteristics of BP nanomaterials that make them suitable for cancer therapy and diagnosis, such as large surface area, nontoxicity, solubility, biodegradability, and excellent near-infrared (NIR) absorption capability, are discussed in the later sections. Next, we summarize targeting approaches using various strategies for effective therapy with BP nanoplatforms. Then, we describe applications of BP nanomaterials for breast cancer treatment, which include drug delivery, codelivery of drugs, photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy, combined therapy, gene therapy, immunotherapy, and multidrug resistance reversal strategy. Finally, the present challenges and future aspects of BP nanomaterials are discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry
- Biomedical Engineering
- Engineering (miscellaneous)
- Clinical Biochemistry