A Compact Dual-Band Millimeter Wave Antenna for Smartwatch and IoT Applications with Link Budget Estimation

Parveez Shariff Bhadrvathi Ghouse, Pallavi R. Mane, Sangeetha Thankappan Sumangala, Vasanth Kumar Puttur, Sameena Pathan, Vikash Kumar Jhunjhunwala, Tanweer Ali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Advancement in smartwatch sensors and connectivity features demands low latency communication with a wide bandwidth. ISM bands below 6 GHz are reaching a threshold. The millimeter-wave (mmWave) spectrum is the solution for future smartwatch applications. Therefore, a compact dual-band antenna operating at 25.5 and 38 GHz is presented here. The characteristics mode theory (CMT) aids the antenna design process by exciting Mode 1 and 2 as well as Mode 1–3 at their respective bands. In addition, the antenna structure generates two traverse modes, TM10 and TM02, at the lower and higher frequency bands. The antenna measured a bandwidth (BW) of 1.5 (25–26.5 GHz) and 2.5 GHz (37–39.5 GHz) with a maximum gain of 7.4 and 7.3 dBi, respectively. The antenna performance within the watch case (stainless steel) showed a stable |S11| with a gain improvement of 9.9 and 10.9 dBi and a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.063 and 0.0206 W/kg, respectively, at the lower and higher bands. The link budget analysis for various rotation angles of the watch indicated that, for a link margin of 20 dB, the antenna can transmit/receive 1 Gbps of data. However, significant fading was noticed at certain angles due to the shadowing effect caused by the watch case itself. Nonetheless, the antenna has a workable bandwidth, a high gain, and a low SAR, making it suitable for smartwatch and IoT applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 01-2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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