A Decision Support System for Diagnosis of COVID-19 from Non-COVID-19 Influenza-like Illness Using Explainable Artificial Intelligence

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21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The coronavirus pandemic emerged in early 2020 and turned out to be deadly, killing a vast number of people all around the world. Fortunately, vaccines have been discovered, and they seem effectual in controlling the severe prognosis induced by the virus. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test is the current golden standard for diagnosing different infectious diseases, including COVID-19; however, it is not always accurate. Therefore, it is extremely crucial to find an alternative diagnosis method which can support the results of the standard RT-PCR test. Hence, a decision support system has been proposed in this study that uses machine learning and deep learning techniques to predict the COVID-19 diagnosis of a patient using clinical, demographic and blood markers. The patient data used in this research were collected from two Manipal hospitals in India and a custom-made, stacked, multi-level ensemble classifier has been used to predict the COVID-19 diagnosis. Deep learning techniques such as deep neural networks (DNN) and one-dimensional convolutional networks (1D-CNN) have also been utilized. Further, explainable artificial techniques (XAI) such as Shapley additive values (SHAP), ELI5, local interpretable model explainer (LIME), and QLattice have been used to make the models more precise and understandable. Among all of the algorithms, the multi-level stacked model obtained an excellent accuracy of 96%. The precision, recall, f1-score and AUC obtained were 94%, 95%, 94% and 98% respectively. The models can be used as a decision support system for the initial screening of coronavirus patients and can also help ease the existing burden on medical infrastructure.

Original languageEnglish
Article number439
JournalBioengineering
Volume10
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 04-2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering

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