A Low-Profile Circularly Polarized Millimeter-Wave Broadband Antenna Analyzed with a Link Budget for IoT Applications in an Indoor Scenario

Parveez Shariff Bhadravathi Ghouse, Pallavi R. Mane, Tanweer Ali, Goutham Simha Golapuram Dattathreya, Sudheesh Puthenveettil Gopi, Sameena Pathan, Jaume Anguera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Broadband antennas with a low-profile generating circular polarization are always in demand for handheld/ portable devices as CP antennas counter multipath and misalignment issues. Therefore, a compact millimeter-wave antenna is proposed in this article. The proposed antenna structure comprises two circular rings and a circular patch at the center. This structure is further embedded with four equilateral triangles at a 90° orientation. The current entering the radiator is divided into left and right circular directions. The equilateral triangles provide the return path for current at the differential phase of ±90°, generating circular polarization. Structural development and analysis were initially performed through the characteristic mode theory. It showed that Modes 1 to 4 generated good impedance matching from 20 to 30 GHz and Modes 1 to 5, from 30 to 40 GHz. It also demonstrated the summation of orthogonal modes leading to circular polarization. The antenna-measured reflection coefficient |S11| > 10 dB was 19 GHz (23–42 GHz), and the axial ratio at −3 dB was 4.2 GHz (36–40.2 GHz). The antenna gain ranged from 4 to 6.2 dBi. The proposed antenna was tested for link margin estimation for IoT indoor conditions with line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions. The communication reliability with co- and cross-polarization was also studied under these conditions, and the results proved to be satisfactory.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1569
JournalSensors
Volume24
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 03-2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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