Introduction: The unprecedented outbreaks of corona virus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) have highlighted the necessity of readily available, reliable, precise, and faster techniques for its detection. Nasopharyngeal swab has been the gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19. However, it is not an ideal screening procedure for massive screening as it implicates the patient’s stay in the hospital or at home until diagnosis, thus causing crowding of the specimen at the diagnostic centers. Present study deal with the exploration of potential application of different body fluids using certain highly objective techniques (Optical and e-Nose) for faster detection of molecular markers thereby diagnosing viral infections. Areas covered: This report presents an evaluation of different body fluids, and their advantages for the rapid detection of COVID-19, coupled with highly sensitive optical techniques for the detection of molecular biomarkers. Expert opinion: Tears, saliva, and breath samples can provide valuable information about viral infections. Our brief review strongly recommends the application of saliva/tears and exhaled breath as clinical samples using technics such as high-performance liquid chromatography-laser-induced fluorescence, photoacoustic spectroscopy, and e-Nose, respectively, for the fast diagnosis of viral infections.

Original languageEnglish
JournalExpert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Publication statusPublished - 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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