In the last two decades, perceptions about the role of body fat have changed. Adipocytes modulate endocrine and immune homeostasis by synthesizing hundreds of hormones, known as adipocytokines. Many studies have been investigating the influences and effects of these adipocytokines and suggest that they are modulated by the nutritional and immunologic milieu. Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are a unique and relevant population in which the function of adipocytokines can be examined, given their altered nutritional and immune status and subsequent dysregulation of adipocytokine metabolism. In this review,we summarize the recent findings about four specific adipocytokines and their respective roles in KTRs.We decided to evaluate the most widely described adipocytokines, including leptin, adiponectin, visfatin and resistin. Increasing evidence suggests that these adipocytokinesmay lead to cardiovascular events and metabolic changes in the general population andmay also increase mortality and graft loss rate in KTRs. In addition, we present findings on the interrelationship between serum adipocytokine levels and nutritional and immunologic status, and mechanisms by which adipocytokines modulate morbidity and outcomes in KTRs.
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