Adsorptive removal of tetracycline from aqueous solutions using magnetic Fe2O3 / activated carbon prepared from Cynometra ramiflora fruit waste

Raja Selvaraj, Deepa Prabhu, P. Senthil Kumar, Gayathri Rangasamy, Gokulakrishnan Murugesan, Mouli Rajesh, Louella Concepta Goveas, Thivaharan Varadavenkatesan, Adithya Samanth, R. Balakrishnaraja, Ramesh Vinayagam

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2 Citations (Scopus)


Herein, the sustainable fabrication of magnetic iron oxide nanoadsorbent prepared with activated carbon of inedible Cynometra ramiflora fruit has been investigated. Activated carbon was obtained from phosphoric acid-treated C. ramiflora fruit, which was then utilized for the synthesis of magnetic nanocomposite (CRAC@Fe2O3). The formed nanocomposite was a porous irregular dense matrix of amorphous evenly sized spherical nanoparticles, as visualized by FESEM, and also contained carbon, oxygen, iron, and phosphorous in its elemental composition. FT-IR spectrum depicted characteristic bands attributing to Fe–O, C–OH, C–N, C[dbnd]C, and –OH bonds. VSM and XRD results proved that CRAC@Fe2O3 was superparamagnetic with a moderate degree of crystallinity and high saturation magnetization value (1.66 emu/g). Superior surface area, pore size, and pore volume of 766.75 m2/g, 2.11 nm, and 0.4050 cm3/g respectively were measured on BET analysis of CRAC@Fe2O3 nanocomposite, indicating their suitability for use as an adsorbent. On application of this nanocomposite for adsorption of tetracycline, maximum removal of 95.78% of 50 ppm TC at pH 4, CRAC@Fe2O3 0.4 g/L in 240 min. The adsorption of TC by CRAC@Fe2O3 was confirmed as monolayer sorption by ionic interaction (R2 = 0.9999) as it followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.9801). CRAC@Fe2O3 showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 312.5 mg/g towards TC antibiotics indicating its potential for the treatment of antibiotic-contaminated samples. Since negative ΔGo and positive ΔHo and ΔSo values were obtained at all tested temperatures during the thermodynamic studies, the adsorption was confirmed to be endothermic, spontaneous, and feasible with an enhanced degree of randomness.

Original languageEnglish
Article number136892
Publication statusPublished - 01-2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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