Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurological disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. There are currently no cures for AD, although various drugs are used to manage the symptoms and reduce the disease’s progression. AChE inhibitors such as rivastigmine, donepezil, galantamine, and the NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist memantine are currently FDA-approved drugs used in the treatment of AD. Recently, naturally derived biological macromolecules have shown promising results in the treatment of AD. Several biological macromolecules derived from natural sources are in various stages of preclinical and clinical trials. During the literature search, it was observed that there is a lack of a comprehensive review that particularly focuses on the role of naturally derived biological macromolecules (protein, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids) in the treatment of AD and the structure-activity relationship (SAR) approach for understanding the medicinal chemistry perspective. This review focuses on the SAR and probable mechanisms of action of biological macromolecules derived from natural sources for the treatment of AD, including peptides, proteins, enzymes, and polysaccharides. The paper further addresses the therapeutic possibilities of monoclonal antibodies, enzymes, and vaccines for the treatment of AD. Overall, the review provides insight into the SAR of naturally derived biological macromolecules in the treatment of AD. The ongoing research in this field holds great promise for the future development of AD treatment and provides hope for individuals affected by this devastating disease. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Structural Biology
- Molecular Biology