Objective of the study: The objective of this study was to evaluate FM and occipital condyles measurements morphometrically for sex determination by using discriminant function analysis and to note visually the variation in the shape of the foramen magnum in a Saudi Arabian population by using CT scan images. Material and methods: This study included 472 CT scans (236 males and 236 females; age range, 18–72 years). The foramen magnum shapes were classified into 8 types: oval, egg, round, hexagonal, pentagonal, tetragonal, irregular (A) and irregular (B). The intraobserver and interobserver test was done to calculate the reliability of the measurement. Eight dimensions of the FM and occipital condyle were evaluated to determine the sexual dimorphism using an independent t-test. Sex determination was estimated using discriminate function analysis. Results: The commonest shape of FM was hexagonal and the tetragonal shape was the least common type. Coefficient of reliability (R) was high, ranging between 0.89 and 0.99, which indicates the measurements are reliable and sufficiently precise. All the eight measurements, the FM length and width, FM index, FM area, the width and length of right and left occipital condyles were significantly greater in males than the female. Univariate discriminant function showed an accuracy rate varying from 61% to 66.6% based on FM or occipital condyles measurements. The multivariate analysis of FM and occipital condyle measurements increased the overall accuracy rate of sex determination to 71.6%. Conclusion: The univariate analysis of FM and occipital condyle measurements indicates, that the FM area (66.1%), FML (62.5%), FMW (62.5%) and ROCL (62.1%) could be reliable individual variables in sex determination. The multivariate analysis including all the eight variables of FM and occipital condyle increased the accuracy rate of sex determination to 71.6% in determining the sex as male (73.3%) or female (69.9%). The shape of the FM is not useful in sex estimation. The results obtained showed a low degree of sexual dimorphism in the basicranium, the use of this method in forensic anthropology could be helpful for assessment on highly fragmented skull bases.
|Translated title of the contribution||Morphometric analysis of foramen magnum and occipital condyle using CT images for sex determination in a Saudi Arabian population|
|Number of pages||11|
|Publication status||Published - 12-2022|
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