Anemia is a blood disorder which is caused due to inadequate red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration. It occurs in all phases of life cycle but is more dominant in pregnant women and infants. According to the survey conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) (McLean et al., Public Health Nutr 12(4):444–454, 2009), anemia affects 1.62 billion people constituting 24.8% of the population and is considered the world’s second leading cause of illness. The Peripheral Blood Smear (PBS) examination plays an important role in evaluating hematological disorders. Anemia is diagnosed using PBS. Being the most powerful analytical tool, manual analysis approach is still in use even though it is tedious, prone to errors, time-consuming and requires qualified laboratorians. It is evident that there is a need for an inexpensive, automatic and robust technique to detect RBC disorders from PBS. Automation of PBS analysis is very active field of research that motivated many research groups to develop methods using image processing. In this paper, we present a review of the methods used to analyze the characteristics of RBC from PBS images using image processing techniques. We have categorized these methods into three groups based on approaches such as RBC segmentation, RBC classification and detection of anemia, and classification of anemia. The outcome of this review has been presented as a list of observations. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2445-2462
Number of pages18
JournalMedical and Biological Engineering and Computing
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 09-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


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