Ureters are muscular tubes that transport urine from the kidney to the bladder. The peristalsis wave is responsible for carrying urine to the bladder. With the regular appearance of peristalsis, areas with anatomic narrowing junctions are crucial for ureteral diseases. A three-dimensional flow analysis is performed for different time steps to understand the effect of the urine bolus formation and the reflux phenomenon on variable diameter ureters. For the constant and variable diameter ureter, the pressure is obtained behind and in front of the propagating bolus respectively. The peristalsis wave creates the high-velocity of a jet in the neck region of the ureter. The contraction produces the trapping of the bolus leading to adverse flow in the contraction region. By virtue tapering, the high-pressure gradient builds up, leading to high wall shear in the ureter. The main goal is to determine the pressure, velocity, gradient pressure, and shear force on the ureter wall during peristaltic motion. These parameters are very important for clinicians to understand its effect in the unobstructed variable diameter ureter. This article may help to build a medical device for engineers. The physical significance of this information lies in its profound insights into the biomechanics and functionality of the ureters, which are essential components of the human urinary system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)54-68
Number of pages15
JournalCFD Letters
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 05-2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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