Anatomic variation in lingual foramen: A cone beam computed tomography study

Ceena E. Denny, Srikant Natarajan, Junaid Ahmed, Almas Binnal, Ritika Jindal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Lingual foramen is usually located in the midline,leveled with or superior to the genial tubercles. The success of implant placements is dependent on the radiological examination,which helps the clinician to determine the parameters of implant placement by revealing the structures like the course of the nerves,location of foramens,height and shape of alveolar bone,etc. The present study was done to assess the appearance,visibility,location,and types of lingual foramen in the mandibular region. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 116 patients who attended the department for various imaging purposes. The examinations were carried out using the Promax three-dimensional (3D) CBCT unit. The cross-sectional images were examined to detect the presence,number,and position of the lingual foramen. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used for comparison of categorical data. Results: We observed lingual foramen in 116 patients and their number ranged from 1 to 3. When comparing the position,it was observed that lingual foramen was located at approximately two-thirds (60th percentile from the alveolar crest) distance from the alveolar crest to lower border of the mandible and there was no significant difference in various age groups or between both genders. Conclusion: Lingual foramen transmits neurovascular bundles to surrounding structures,hence any damage to the lingual foramen during surgical procedures can result in hemorrhage and/or neurosensory disturbances. It is therefore mandatory for a dentist to be aware of the structures present in the anterior mandible when considering any surgical procedures or implant planning. Hence,CBCT plays a pivotal role during implant planning and surgical procedures in dentistry.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)179-181
Number of pages3
JournalWorld Journal of Dentistry
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 01-10-2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Dentistry(all)


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