Anemia was studied in albino rats in parallel with the development of cirrhosis following administration of carbon tetrachloride. Anemia (hemoglobin below 12.0g.%) developed in 54.0% of the 46 cirrhotic rats. It was mild to moderate in severity in the majority of the animals. Both the frequency and severity of anemia ran parallel with the degree of liver damage. Morphologically, the anemia was normocytic in 16 of the 25 anemic rats, the rest showed macrocytosis. Bone marrow of anemic animals revealed erythroid hyperplasia correlating fairly well with the severity of anemia. The degree of macrocytosis also paralleled liver damage. In splencctomized cirrhotic animab the anemia was less severe. Administration of vitamin B12 did not influence the incidence or severity of the anemia. The pathogenesis of anemia in experimental cirrhosis in the rat is discussed. © 1962 S. Karger AG, Basel.