Antibiogram, Virulence Genes, and Biofilm-Forming Ability of Clinical Salmonella enterica Serovars: An in Vitro Study

Dhiraj Krishna, Biranthabail Dhanashree

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi are causative agents of enteric fever. Salmonella Typhi persists as a biofilm on gallstones. Hence, we studied the biofilm formation, antibiogram, and virulence genes of S. enterica serovars. Antibiogram of S. enterica serovars from human blood and stool samples were studied by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and biofilm by microtiter plate method. We studied the minimum inhibitory concentration of the isolates by Vitek-2 semiautomated system. Polymerase chain reaction was done to detect invA and spvC genes. Of the 55 isolates studied, 36 (65.45%) were Salmonella Typhi, 13 (23.63%) were Salmonella Paratyphi A, 2 (3.64%) were Salmonella Typhimurium, and 4 (7.28%) were Salmonella spp. Resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid were found to be 81.8% and 92.7%, respectively. Chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole-susceptible strains were 98.18%. One each of Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, and S. enterica isolates formed weak biofilm at 28°C. However, at 37°C eight Salmonella Typhi produced weak biofilm in the presence of bile. One Salmonella Paratyphi A and two Salmonella spp. formed weak biofilm in the absence of bile. All the isolates had the invA gene. Salmonella Typhimurium had invA and spvC genes. Bile may contribute to biofilm formation and persistence of the Salmonella Typhi on gallstones, which may lead to carrier state. Changing antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella serovars is observed in our geographic area. The presence of invA and spvC genes indicate the ability of invasiveness and intracellular survival.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)871-878
Number of pages8
JournalMicrobial Drug Resistance
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 07-2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology
  • Microbiology (medical)


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