The objective of the study is to investigate the aqueous (AQSP) and alcoholic extracts (ALSP) of stem barks of Spathodea companulata (Bignoniaceae) for their antidiarrheal activity in rodents. Stem bark was extracted with alcohol and water successively. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was carried out to identify various phytochemical constituents present in the extracts. It was found that the ALSP contains alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds; AQSP contained carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. Acute oral toxicity of ALSP and AQSP were conducted as per OECD guidelines 425. Acute toxicity studies revealed that both the extracts are safe upto 2000mg/kg. The antidiarrheal activity was observed in three experimentally induced diarrhea models i.e. Castor oil induced diarrhea; Prostaglandin E2 (PG-E2) induced enteropooling in rats and charcoal meal test in mice. In castor oil induced model ALSP and AQSP showed significant dose dependent reduction of cumulative wet faecal mass. In PG-E2 induced enteropooling model, ALSP (50,100 and 200mg/kg, p.o.) and AQSP (50,100 and 200mg/kg, p.o) inhibit PG-E2 induced secretions. Similarly in charcoal meal test ALSP and AQSP decreased the movement of charcoal indicating its antimotility activity. It was observed that AQSP is having more potent anti-diarrheal activity than ALSP in these models.
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|Published - 2009