Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a multi-layered problem with a calamitous impact on humans, livestock, the environment, and the biosphere. Initiatives and action plan to preclude AMR remain poorly implemented in India. Area covered: This review highlights essential factors contributing to AMR, epidemiology of the resistant bacteria, current treatment options, economic impact, and regulatory efforts initiated by the Indian government to tackle AMR. Expert opinion: Health-care professionals, hospitals, and the general public must understand and cooperatively implement the ‘One Health approach,’ which entails judicious use of antibiotics in humans, animals, and the environment. Neglecting the AMR problem predicts the expansion of the ‘Post-antibiotic era’ characterized by drying antibiotic discovery pipelines, overuse of ‘Watch’ and ‘Reserve’ groups, coupled with underuse of ‘Access’ antibiotics, increased daily defined doses, increased healthcare cost, rise in morbidity, mortality, and environmental degradation. The Indian case study elucidates a looming international crisis that demands global attention and commitment for envisaging and implementing locally relevant solutions.

Original languageEnglish
JournalExpert Opinion on Drug Safety
Publication statusPublished - 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology (medical)


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