Apatite insights: From synthesis to biomedical applications

Tajammul Hussain M. Mysore, Arun Y. Patil, Chandrashekhar Hegde, M. A. Sudeept, Raman Kumar, Manzoore Elahi M. Soudagar, I. M.R. Fattah

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Hydroxyapatite (HAp), a calcium phosphate mineral (Ca10 (PO4)6 (OH)2), has established itself as a cornerstone material across diverse fields since its discovery. HAp serves as a crucial component in artificial bone grafts, dental implants, and drug delivery systems. Researchers have diligently explored various synthesis methods, including sol-gel, precipitation, and hydrothermal processes. The advent of nanotechnology has paved the way for the development of nano-sized HAp particles boasting enhanced properties. Its excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties make it invaluable for bone regeneration and repair. HAp's ability to mimic the structure of natural bone minerals has made it essential in tissue engineering, contributing to the development of synthetic bone substitutes. Beyond its role in medical applications, HAp shows promise in water treatment as an effective adsorbent for heavy metal removal. Additionally, it finds use as a filler in polymer composites, enhancing their mechanical and thermal properties. Recent advancements in HAp research encompass the development of HAp-based nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery, bioresorbable implants, and 3D-printed scaffolds personalized for individual needs. The versatility of HAp is further amplified by its combination with other materials like polymers or bioceramics, unlocking its potential in diverse applications. Despite its remarkable properties, challenges remain, including cost considerations, scalability limitations, and potential immunological responses. Future prospects lie in refining HAp synthesis techniques, continued exploration of its biological applications, and venturing into novel uses within emerging fields like regenerative medicine and nanotechnology.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112842
JournalEuropean Polymer Journal
Publication statusPublished - 15-04-2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Physics and Astronomy
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry


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