Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are heterogeneous compounds formed when excess sugars condense with the amino groups of nucleic acids and proteins. Increased AGEs are associated with insulin resistance and poor glycemic control. Recently, inflamed periodontal tissues and certain oral bacteria were observed to increase the local and systemic AGE levels in both normoglycemic and hyperglycemic individuals. Although hyperglycemia induced AGE and its effect on the periodontal tissues is known, periodontitis as an endogenous source of AGE formation is not well explored. Hence, this systematic review is aimed to explore, for the first time, whether inflamed periodontal tissues and periodontal pathogens have the capacity to modulate AGE levels in individuals with or without T2DM and how this affects the glycemic load. Six electronic databases were searched using the following keywords: (Periodontitis OR Periodontal disease OR Periodontal Inflammation) AND (Diabetes mellitus OR Hyperglycemia OR Insulin resistance) AND Advanced glycation end products. The results yielded 1140 articles, of which 13 articles were included for the review. The results showed that the mean AGE levels in gingival crevicular fluid was higher in individuals with diabetes mellitus and periodontitis (521.9 pg/mL) compared to healthy individuals with periodontitis (234.84 pg/mL). The serum AGE levels in normoglycemic subjects having periodontitis was higher compared to those without periodontitis (15.91 ng/mL vs. 6.60 ng/mL). Tannerella forsythia, a common gram-negative anaerobe periodontal pathogen in the oral biofilm, was observed to produce methylglyoxal (precursor of AGE) in the gingival tissues. Increased AGE deposition and activate of AGE receptors was noted in the presence of periodontitis in both normoglycemic and hyperglycemic individuals. Hence, it can be concluded that periodontitis can modulate the local and systemic levels of AGE levels even in absence of hyperglycemia. This explains the bidirectional relationship between periodontitis and development of prediabetes, incident diabetes, poor glycemic control, and insulin resistance.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology