Transcription factors (TF) and microRNAs are regulatory factors in astrocytes and are linked to several Parkinson's disease (PD) progression causes, such as disruption of glutamine transporters in astrocytes and concomitant disrupted glutamine uptake and inflammation. REST, a crucial TF, has been documented as an epigenetic repressor that limits the expression of neuronal genes in non-neural cells. REST activity is significantly linked to its corepressors in astrocytes, specifically histone deacetylases (HDACs), CoREST, and MECP2. Another REST-regulating TF, YY1, has been studied in astrocytes, and its interaction with REST has been investigated. In this review, the molecular processes that support the astrocytic control of REST and YY1 in terms of the regulation of glutamate transporter EAAT2 were addressed in a more detailed and comprehensive manner. Both TFs' function in astrocytes and how astrocyte abnormalities cause PD is still a mystery. Moreover, microRNAs (short non-coding RNAs) are key regulators that have been correlated to the expression and regulation of numerous genes linked to PD. The identification of numerous miRs that are engaged in astrocyte dysfunction that triggers PD has been shown. The term “Gut-brain axis” refers to the two systems' mutual communication. Gut microbial dysbiosis, which mediates an imbalance of the gut-brain axis, might contribute to neurodegenerative illnesses through altered astrocytic regulation. New treatment approaches to modify the gut-brain axis and prevent astrocytic repercussions have also been investigated in this review.
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