Biological and chemical properties of 2-in-1 calcium-chelating and antibacterial root canal irrigants

Nidambur Vasudev Ballal, Rajkumar Narkedamalli, Poornika Gandhi, Maria Teresa Arias-Moliz, Pilar Baca, Shubhankar Das, Jothi Varghese, Santosh Laxman Gaonkar, Bola Sadashiva Satish Rao, Joshua Frazier, Brian E. Bergeron, Franklin R. Tay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To evaluate the capacity of canal wall smear layer removal, precipitation caused by irrigant interaction, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of three 2-in-1 root canal irrigating solutions. Methods: Forty single-rooted teeth were mechanically instrumented and irrigated with QMix, SmearOFF, Irritrol or 0.9% saline. Each tooth was evaluated for smear layer removal using scanning electron microscopy. Precipitation after interaction of the irrigating solutions with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) was evaluated with 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Neutral red and clonogenic assays were performed on Chinese hamster V79 cells to evaluate the short-term and long-term cytotoxicity of the irrigants. Results: There was no significant difference between QMix and SmearOFF in eliminating smear layers from the coronal-third and middle-third of the canal spaces. In the apical-third, SmearOFF removed smear layers effectively. Irritrol incompletely removed smear layers from all the canal-thirds. When mixed with NaOCl, precipitation was evident only with Irritrol. QMix demonstrated a higher E. faecalis cell death percentage and a smaller biovolume. SmearOFF exhibited a larger decrease in biovolume compared with Irritrol, although Irritrol had a higher death percentage. Irritrol was more cytotoxic than the other irrigants on a short-term interval. In terms of long-term cytotoxicity, both Irritrol and QMix were cytotoxic. Conclusion: QMix and SmearOFF performed better in smear layer removal and antimicrobial activity. QMix and Irritrol were cytotoxic when compared to SmearOFF. Irritrol was associated with precipitation after interacting with NaOCl. Clinical significance: Evaluation of the smear layer removal capability, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of 2-in-1 root canal irrigants is necessary to ensure that they are safe to use during root canal treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104526
JournalJournal of Dentistry
Publication statusPublished - 07-2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Dentistry


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