Cationic biopolymer decorated Asiatic Acid and Centella asiatica extract incorporated liposomes for treating early-stage Alzheimer's disease: An In-vitro and In-vivo investigation

Srinivas Hebbar, Akhilesh Dubey, Namdev Dhas, Anup Naha, Usha Rani, Ravi GS, Amitha Shetty, Chaithra R Shetty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Asiatic acid (AA) is a naturally occurring triterpenoid derivative of Centella asiatica (CA) with neuroprotective effect. The study aimed to design an ideal oral drug delivery system to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) and develop chitosan-embedded liposomes comprising an extract of CA (CLCAE) and compare them with the chitosan-coated liposomes of asiatic acid (CLAA) for oral delivery to treat the initial phases of AD. Methods: The solvent evaporation technique was used to develop CLCAE and CLAA, optimised with the experiment's design, and was further evaluated. Results: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies confirmed coating with chitosan. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated the successful formation of CLCAE and CLAA. Differential scanning colorimetry (DSC) confirmed the drug-phospholipid complex. Furthermore, the rate of in vitro release of CLCAE and CLAA was found to be 69.43±0.3 % and 85.3±0.3 %, respectively, in 24 h. Ex vivo permeation of CLCAE and CLAA was found to be 48±0.3 % and 78±0.3 %, respectively. In the Alcl3-induced AD model in rats, disease progression was confirmed by Y-maze, the preliminary histopathology evaluation showed significantly higher efficacy of the prepared liposomes (CLCAE and CLAA) compared to the Centella asiatica extract (CAE) and they were found to have equivalent efficacy to the standard drug (rivastigmine tartrate). The considerable increase in pharmacodynamic parameters in terms of neuronal count in the CLAA group indicated the protective role against Alcl3 toxicity and was also confirmed by assessing acetylcholine (Ach) levels. The pharmacokinetic study, such as C max, T max, and area under curve (AUC) parameters, proved an increase in AA bioavailability in the form of CLAA compared to the pure AA and CLCAE forms. Conclusion: The preclinical study suggested that CLAA was found to have better stability and an ideal oral drug delivery system to treat AD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1535
JournalF1000Research
Volume11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)

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