Changes in sleep pattern and sleep quality during COVID-19 lockdown

Ravi Gupta, Sandeep Grover, Aniruddha Basu, Vijay Krishnan, Adarsh Tripathi, Alka Subramanyam, Anil Nischal, Arshad Hussain, Aseem Mehra, Atul Ambekar, Gautam Saha, Kshirod Mishra, Manish Bathla, Mukesh Jagiwala, Narayana Manjunatha, Naresh Nebhinani, Navendu Gaur, Niraj Kumar, Pronob Dalal, Pankaj KumarPurav Midha, Ritu Daga, Sai Tikka, Samir Praharaj, Sandeep Goyal, Shweta Kanchan, Siddharth Sarkar, Sourav Das, Sujit Sarkhel, Susanta Padhy, Swapnajeet Sahoo, T. Satyanarayana Rao, Vaibhav Dubey, Vikas Menon, Vishal Chhabra, Vivekanand Lahan, Ajit Avasthi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

155 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: To mitigate the spread of the pandemic coronavirus infection (COVID-19), governments across the world have adopted 'lockdowns' which have confined many individuals to their homes. This disrupts normal life routines, elements of which are important circadian cues. The pandemic is also associated with new stressors, altered roles, and uncertainties about health and economic security, which are also likely to affect sleep. The current study is an online survey of sleep experience, routines, physical activity, and symptoms of anxiety and depression, to study the alterations associated with the lockdown. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted in early May 2020 using a questionnaire circulated through social media platforms. Questions related to demographic characteristics, current and previous sleep schedules, routine, and working patterns. Insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index - 4), Stress (Perceived Stress Scale - 4), anxiety and depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire - 4) and physical activity (International Physical Activities Questionnaire) were assessed using standardized instruments. Results: A total of 958 valid responses were received. Compared to the prelockdown period, there was a shift to a later bedtime and waking time, with a reduction in night-time sleep and an increase in day-time napping. These effects were visible across occupational groups, but mostly affected working individuals except health professionals. Sleep quality deteriorated across groups. Reductions in sleep duration were associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions: The COVID-19 lockdown is associated with changes in sleep schedule and in the quantity and quality of night-time sleep. Although these changes are associated with elevated rates of emotional symptoms, it is unclear from these cross-sectional results, whether sleep deterioration produces psychological distress, or vice versa.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)370-378
Number of pages9
JournalIndian Journal of Psychiatry
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 01-07-2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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