Clinical and Genetic Profile of X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia: A Multicenter Experience From India

Amit Rawat, Ankur Kumar Jindal, Deepti Suri, Pandiarajan Vignesh, Anju Gupta, Biman Saikia, Ranjana W. Minz, Aaqib Zaffar Banday, Rahul Tyagi, Kanika Arora, Vibhu Joshi, Sanjib Mondal, Jitendra Kumar Shandilya, Madhubala Sharma, Mukesh Desai, Prasad Taur, Ambreen Pandrowala, Vijaya Gowri, Sneha Sawant-Desai, Maya GuptaAparna Dhondi Dalvi, Manisha Madkaikar, Amita Aggarwal, Revathi Raj, Ramya Uppuluri, Sagar Bhattad, Ananthvikas Jayaram, Harsha Prasad Lashkari, Liza Rajasekhar, Deenadayalan Munirathnam, Manas Kalra, Anuj Shukla, Ruchi Saka, Rajni Sharma, Ravinder Garg, Kohsuke Imai, Shigeaki Nonoyama, Osamu Ohara, Pamela P. Lee, Koon Wing Chan, Yu Lung Lau, Surjit Singh

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14 Citations (Scopus)


Background: There is paucity of literature on XLA from developing countries. Herein we report the clinical and molecular profile and outcome in a multicenter cohort of patients with XLA from India. Methods: Data on XLA from all regional centers supported by the Foundation for Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases (FPID), USA and other institutions providing care to patients with PIDs were collated. Diagnosis of XLA was based on European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) criteria. Results: We received clinical details of 195 patients with a provisional diagnosis of XLA from 12 centers. At final analysis, 145 patients were included (137 ‘definite XLA’ and eight ‘probable/possible XLA’). Median age at onset of symptoms was 12.0 (6.0, 36.0) months and median age at diagnosis was 60.0 (31.5, 108) months. Pneumonia was the commonest clinical manifestation (82.6%) followed by otitis media (50%) and diarrhea (42%). Arthritis was seen in 26% patients while 23% patients developed meningitis. Bronchiectasis was seen in 10% and encephalitis (likely viral) in 4.8% patients. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the commonest bacterial pathogen identified followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Molecular analysis revealed 86 variants in 105 unrelated cases. Missense variants in BTK gene were the most common (36%) followed by frameshift (22%) and nonsense variants (21%). Most pathogenic gene variants (53%) were clustered in the distal part of gene encompassing exons 14–19 encoding for the tyrosine kinase domain. Follow-up details were available for 108 patients. Of these, 12% had died till the time of this analysis. The 5-year and 10-year survival was 89.9% and 86.9% respectively. Median duration of follow-up was 61 months and total duration of follow-up was 6083.2 patient-months. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) replacement therapy. However, in many patients IVIg could not be given at recommended doses or intervals due to difficulties in accessing this therapy because of financial reasons and lack of universal health insurance in India. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant was carried out in four (2.8%) patients. Conclusion: There was a significant delay in the diagnosis and facilities for molecular diagnosis were not available at many centers. Optimal immunoglobulin replacement is still a challenge

Original languageEnglish
Article number612323
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Publication statusPublished - 15-01-2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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