Colorectal Carcinoma with Sarcomatoid Components: Report of 15 Cases and Literature Review of an Exceedingly Rare Carcinoma Subtype

Umamaheshwari Golconda, Kelsey E. McHugh, Daniela S. Allende, Katrina Collins, Patrick Henn, Maribel Lacambra, Pablo A. Bejarano, Gabriel M. Groisman, Maurice B. Loughrey, Vidya Monappa, Xuchen Zhang, Jason L. Hornick, Raul S. Gonzalez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Colorectal carcinoma with sarcomatoid components (which includes so-called carcinosarcomas and sarcomatoid carcinomas) is a rare subtype with 50 reported cases in the literature and overlapping criteria with undifferentiated carcinoma. We collected and described 15 cases from 10 men and 5 women, with a mean age of 66 years. Symptoms included abdominal pain and gastrointestinal bleeding. Most tumors presented in the rectosigmoid region, with a mean size of 8.2 cm. The sarcomatoid component, on average, represented 58% of the tumors and took many forms, including spindled (10 cases), anaplastic (9 cases), and rhabdoid (3 cases); one case showed osteoid matrix. Tumor budding was usually high, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were usually low. The sarcomatoid component was keratin-positive in 10 cases. One case showed loss of mismatch repair protein expression, and 2 cases showed SMARCA4 loss (1 also with SMARCA2 loss). Molecular testing identified mutations in KRAS (n=1), NRAS (n=2), BRAF (n=2), APC (n=1), and TP53 (n=1) in a few cases. Tumors often presented at advanced stage, with 11 cases pT4, 9 cases with nodal metastases, and 7 cases with distant metastases. Follow-up was available for 10 cases (median: 2 months), with 2 alive without disease, 3 alive with disease, and 5 dead. Our findings roughly corresponded with those in previously reported cases. Colorectal carcinoma with sarcomatoid components is rare and aggressive, with a poor prognosis for many patients. We suggest that spindled cells, anaplasia, heterologous elements, and/or a component with definable sarcomatous lineage be used to distinguish colorectal carcinoma with sarcomatoid components from undifferentiated carcinoma.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)465-474
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Surgical Pathology
Volume48
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-04-2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Anatomy
  • Surgery
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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