Combinatorial approaches of nanotherapeutics for inflammatory pathway targeted therapy of prostate cancer

Renjith P. Johnson, Chandrahas Koumar Ratnacaram, Lalit Kumar, Jobin Jose

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Prostate cancer (PC) is the most prevalent male urogenital cancer worldwide. PC patients presenting an advanced or metastatic cancer succumb to the disease, even after therapeutic interventions including radiotherapy, surgery, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), and chemotherapy. One of the hallmarks of PC is evading immune surveillance and chronic inflammation, which is a major challenge towards designing effective therapeutic formulations against PC. Chronic inflammation in PC is often characterized by tumor microenvironment alterations, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and extracellular matrix modifications. The inflammatory events are modulated by reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Major signaling pathways in PC includes androgen receptor, PI3K and NF-κB pathways and targeting these inter-linked pathways poses a major therapeutic challenge. Notably, many conventional treatments are clinically unsuccessful, due to lack of targetability and poor bioavailability of the therapeutics, untoward toxicity and multidrug resistance. The past decade witnessed an advancement of nanotechnology as an excellent therapeutic paradigm for PC therapy. Modern nanovectorization strategies such as stimuli-responsive and active PC targeting carriers offer controlled release patterns and superior anti-cancer effects. The current review initially describes the classification, inflammatory triggers and major inflammatory pathways of PC, various PC treatment strategies and their limitations. Subsequently, recent advancement in combinatorial nanotherapeutic approaches, which target PC inflammatory pathways, and the mechanism of action are discussed. Besides, the current clinical status and prospects of PC homing nanovectorization, and major challenges to be addressed towards the advancement PC therapy are also addressed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100865
JournalDrug Resistance Updates
Publication statusPublished - 09-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Pharmacology
  • Cancer Research
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Combinatorial approaches of nanotherapeutics for inflammatory pathway targeted therapy of prostate cancer'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this