Considerations for the selection of co-formers in the preparation of co-amorphous formulations

Dani Lakshman Yarlagadda, Vullendula Sai Krishna Anand, Athira R. Nair, K. S. Navya Sree, Swapnil J. Dengale, Krishnamurthy Bhat

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


Co-amorphous drug delivery systems are evolving as a credible alternative to amorphous solid dispersions technology. In Co-amorphous systems (CAMs), a drug is stabilized in amorphous form using small molecular weight compounds called as co-formers. A wide variety of small molecular weight co-formers have been leveraged in the preparation of CAMs. The stability and supersaturation potential of prepared co-amorphous phases largely depend on the type of co-former employed in the CAMs. However, the rationality behind the co-former selection in co-amorphous systems is poorly understood and scarcely compiled in the literature. There are various facets to the rational selection of co-former for CAMs. In this context, the present review compiles various factors affecting the co-former selection. The factors have been broadly classified under Thermodynamic, Kinetic and Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacologically relevant parameters. In particular, the importance of Glass transition, Miscibility, Liquid-Liquid phase separation (LLPS), Crystallization inhibition has been deliberated in detail.

Original languageEnglish
Article number120649
Pages (from-to)120649
Number of pages1
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics
Publication statusPublished - 01-06-2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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