COVID-19 and transportation of India: influence on infection risk and greenhouse gas emissions

Arti Roshan Soni, Kumar Amrit, Amar Mohan Shinde

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


COVID-19 have significant impact on travel behaviour and greenhouse gases (GHG), especially for the most affected city in India, Mumbai metropolitan region (MMR). The present study attempts to explore the risk on different modes of transportation and GHG emissions (based on change in travel behavior) during peak/non-peak hours in a day by an online/offline survey for commuters in Indian metropolitan cities like MMR, Delhi and Bengaluru. In MMR, the probability of infection in car estimated to be 0.88 and 0.29 during peak and non-peak hour, respectively, considering all windows open. The risk of infection in public transportation system such as in bus (0.307), train (0.521), and metro (0.26) observed to be lower than in private vehicles. Furthermore, impact of COVID-19 on GHG emissions have also been explored considering three scenarios. The GHG emissions have been estimated for base (3.83–16.87 tonne), lockdown (0.22–0.48 tonne) and unlocking (2.13–9.30 tonne) scenarios. It has been observed that emissions are highest during base scenario and lowest during lockdown situation. This study will be a breakthrough in understanding the impact of pandemic on environment and transportation. The study shall help transport planners and decision makers to operate public transport during pandemic like situation such that the modal share of public transportation is always highest. It shall also help in regulating the GHG emissions causing climate change.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7377-7392
Number of pages16
JournalEnvironment, Development and Sustainability
Issue number8
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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