Derma roller mediated transdermal delivery of tizanidine invasomes for the management of skeletal muscle spasms

Leonna Dsouza, Pinal Chaudhari, Bheemisetty Brahmam, Shaila A. Lewis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Tizanidine hydrochloride (TIZ) is a skeletal muscle relaxant used to treat spasms, a sudden involuntary muscle contraction. The currently available oral dosage forms exhibit low oral bioavailability due to high first-pass metabolism. Frequent administration of the drug is thus necessary because of the short half-life of the drug. Transdermal delivery is an excellent alternative, but the skin's outer stratum corneum barrier prevents most drugs from being effectively delivered into the bloodstream. Here we present a pre-clinical investigation of derma roller mediated delivery of TIZ invasome gel as a potential approach for treating muscle spasm. Further, specific terpenes namely limonene and pinene in different concentrations and their impact on the properties of the prepared TIZ invasomes, including particle size, drug entrapment, and ex vivo drug release, were investigated. TIZ invasomes were incorporated into a gel and delivered to rats with and without pre-treatment of the skin with a derma roller. Pre-treated skin achieved maximum drug plasma concentrations within 3 ± 0.00 h of gel application and maintained for 24 h. In the untreated skin the maximum plasma drug levels was achieved at the end of 6 ± 0.00 h. The findings were further supported by in vivo efficacy studies conducted using rotarod and actophotometer. Overall, the study indicates that derma roller mediated transdermal delivery of TIZ loaded invasomes is a promising strategy for enhancing the bioavailability of TIZ.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105920
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Publication statusPublished - 01-10-2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmaceutical Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Derma roller mediated transdermal delivery of tizanidine invasomes for the management of skeletal muscle spasms'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this