Development and evaluation of patient information leaflet for diabetic foot ulcer patients

M. Sonal Sekhar, M. K. Unnikrishnan, Navya Vyas, Gabriel Sunil Rodrigues

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Patient education (PE) is as important as medical and surgical interventions in the management of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). Patient information leaflets (PILs) are globally accepted patient counseling aids. Objectives: This study aimed at developing PILs for DFU patients and investigating its validation. Methods: The PILs were prepared based on different model leaflets available from various online resources, including "Patient UK". The PILs readability was evaluated by Flesch/ Flesch-Kincaid readability (FRE/FK-GL) method before user-testing (n = 34 DFU patients) by quasi-experimental methods in patients with DFU. Additionally, user-opinion on legibility and content of the PIL was also determined. Baker Able Leaflet Design (BALD) method was employed to assess the layout and design characteristics of the PIL. Results: The best FRE score achieved was 73.9 and the FK-GL score was 6.1. The mean BALD assessment score for English and Kannada versions of PIL were 27 and 26, respectively. The ICC of the test-retest reliability of user-testing and user-opinion questionnaires in both English and Kannada ranged from 0.91 to 0.96. The overall user-testing knowledge-based mean score significantly improved from 43.4 to 69.7 (P < 0.05). Overall, 82.4% of patients reported overall user-opinion on legibility and content of the PIL as good. Conclusions: The developed PILs met the criteria of fairly easy readability and good layout design. The user-opinion of the majority of patients reported the PIL content, legibility, and design as good. The Pictogram-based PILs (P-PILs) was found to be an effective PE tool in DFU patients.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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