Development and validation of a structured questionnaire to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) regarding the effect of yoga on periodontal health among Indian adults.

Madhurya N. Kedlaya, Lakshmi Puzhankara, Mansi Mahendra, K. Vineetha, Suraj Prasad Sinha, Anupam Singh, Shaswata Karmakar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of structures surrounding the teeth. Its etiology is multifactorial. The primary etiological factor is the microbial component; the other factors are systemic, behavioral, environmental, and psychological. Conventional management includes routine periodontal therapy involving prophylactic and surgical management. In developing countries like India, complementary medicine and alternative medicines like yoga are gaining popularity for improving systemic health. Hence this pilot study was designed to assess the psychometric properties of a structured questionnaire that can assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding the impact of yoga on oral and periodontal health in Indian population. Methods: The KAP questionnaire was developed (Stage One) using a deductive approach, and a psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire was performed to evaluate it’s reliability and validity (Stage Two). Initial content validation and test re-test reliability were assessed using kappa statistics with binary responses. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the questions in the practice and attitude category with categorical variables. Further assessment of psychometric properties of the questionnaire was done using item response theory. The developed questionnaire had four principal sections: demography of participants; knowledge regarding yoga and oral health; attitude towards yoga and oral health; and practice towards implementing yoga for oral health. Results: The ICC for all the assessed questions was greater than 0.60 suggesting satisfactory stability. Internal consistency measured using Cronbach’s alpha for knowledge, attitude, and practice items were reported to be 0.632, 0.923, and 0.591 respectively and that of the KAP total was 0.632. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that the questionnaire had an acceptable psychometric property for measuring KAP regarding yoga and it’s role in oral and periodontal health among Indian adults. The analysis of participant responses revealed that they had a medium level of knowledge regarding yoga and periodontal disease.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1404
Publication statusPublished - 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics


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