Microorganisms are the major cause for the failure of root canal treatment, due to the penetration ability within the root anatomy. However, irrigation regimens have at times failed due to the biofilm mode of bacterial growth. Liposomes are vesicular structures of the phospholipids which might help in better penetration efficiency into dentinal tubules and in increasing the antibacterial efficacy. Methods: In the present work, chlorhexidine liposomes were formulated. Liposomal chlorhexidine was characterized by size, zeta potential, and cryo-electron microscope (Cryo-EM). Twenty-one single-rooted premolars were extracted and irrigated with liposomal chlorhexidine and 2% chlorhexidine solution to evaluate the depth of penetration. In vitro cytotoxicity study was performed for liposomal chlorhexidine on the L929 mouse fibroblast cell line. Results: The average particle size of liposomes ranged from 48 ± 4.52 nm to 223 ± 3.63 nm with a polydispersity index value of <0.4. Cryo-EM microscopic images showed spherical vesicular structures. Depth of penetration of liposomal chlorhexidine was higher in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds of roots compared with plain chlorhexidine in human extracted teeth when observed under the confocal laser scanning microscope. The pure drug exhibited a cytotoxic concentration at which 50% of the cells are dead after a drug exposure (IC50) value of 12.32 ± 3.65 µg/mL and 29.04 ± 2.14 µg/mL (on L929 and 3T3 cells, respectively) and liposomal chlorhexidine exhibited an IC50 value of 37.9 ± 1.05 µg/mL and 85.24 ± 3.22 µg/mL (on L929 and 3T3 cells, respectively). Discussion: Antimicrobial analysis showed a decrease in colony counts of bacteria when treated with liposomal chlorhexidine compared with 2% chlorhexidine solution. Nano-liposomal novel chlorhexidine was less cytotoxic when treated on mouse fibroblast L929 cells and more effective as an antimicrobial agent along with higher penetration ability.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3372
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 10-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Development of Lipidic Nanoplatform for Intra-Oral Delivery of Chlorhexidine: Characterization, Biocompatibility, and Assessment of Depth of Penetration in Extracted Human Teeth'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this