Development of materials and structures for shielding applications against Blast and Ballistic impact: A Detailed Review

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24 Citations (Scopus)


The development of armaments has brought forth the challenges of protection systems from gunfire and the like, while the advances in high energy explosives and availability, run the risk of intentional explosions like bomb blasts. The military forces, and the civilians worldwide, have suffered severe injuries/fatalities, victimized by attacks due to acts of extremism or warfare. The blast events due to aerial and terrestrial bombings at warzones, are frequent and expected, while those due to ambush attacks of terror are haphazard and unpredictable, which offer extremely tough challenges to the task of protection. The shielding materials for ballistic impacts from projectile weapons have found widespread applications for military vehicles and personnel serving in police and defence sectors. The standard bulletproof vests offer protection for low to medium calibre projectiles, while they are less worthy against explosions, rendering little or no protection to the individual. In the current work, research spanning over the last 70 years has been reviewed, comparing the shielding materials for both blast and ballistic protection, their structural designs and developments including thin and lightweight materials. Beginning with a short introduction to blast theory, the detailed review of the materials employed for protection against different types of blast (open-air, underwater, confined space) as well as ballistic impact are covered. Potential novel materials for future applications have been discussed along with subsequent potential and challenges to aid material designers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109664
JournalThin-Walled Structures
Publication statusPublished - 10-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Mechanical Engineering


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