Digging Deeper through Biological Specimens Using Adaptive Optics-Based Optical Microscopy

Gagan Raju, Nirmal Mazumder

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Optical microscopy is a vital tool for visualizing the cellular and sub-cellular structures of biological specimens. However, due to its limited penetration depth, its biological applicability has been hindered. The scattering and absorption of light by a wide array of biomolecules causes signal attenuation and restricted imaging depth in tissues. Researchers have put forth various approaches to address this, including designing novel probes for imaging applications and introducing adaptive optics (AO) technology. Various techniques, such as direct wavefront sensing to quickly detect and fix wavefront deformation and indirect wavefront sensing using modal and zonal methods to rectify complex aberrations, have been developed through AO paradigms. In addition, algorithmic post-processing without mechanical feedback has been utilized to correct the optical patterns using the matrix-based method. Hence, reliable optical imaging through thick biological tissue is made possible by sensorless AO. This review highlights the latest advancements in various AO-based optical microscopy techniques for depth-resolved imaging and briefly discusses their potential in various biomedical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number178
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 02-2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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