Downstaging for cervical cancer: A community-based study in the rural areas of Udupi district, Karnataka, India

R. S.P. Rao, Veena G. Kamath, S. Chandrashekhar, L. Rao, K. Pratap

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of utilizing trained auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) in downstaging for cancer cervix in a rural area. The study population included all married women in the age group of 35-59 years in two villages of the field practice area. It was a cross-sectional study. Two ANMs were trained in history taking, visual inspection of the cervix, using of speculum and collecting Papanicolaou smears. After training, they made home visits and identified women with gynaecological symptoms suggestive of cervical cancer. These women were asked to report to Rural Maternity and Child Welfare whom homes where the ANMs did a visual inspection of the cervix and made a cervical smear. A total of 1402 women were registered of the ANMs could identify 368 women (26%) with symptoms. Only 192 (52.2%) of these women reported for examination. Chronic cervicitis accounted for the largest proportion of the cases (44.8%). In all, three cases were diagnosed as suspected cases of cancer cervix. On cytology, three cases (1.5%) turned out to be malignant. When clinical findings of the ANM were compared with results of cytological examination, a high degree of sensitivity (78.4%) and positive predictive value (97.1%) were observed in diagnosing abnormal cytological findings. However, the sensitivity for detecting specific conditions was generally low. Sensitivity for detecting erosionwas 45%, for chronic cervicitis 30%, and malignancies were totally missed. In conclusion, this study clearly shows that ANMs, if trained, would be capable of identifying symptomatic women, differentiating a normal cervix froman abnormal one and taking an adequate smear for cytological examination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)73-75
Number of pages3
JournalTropical Doctor
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 01-04-2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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