Drainage Pattern of Craniofacial Veins with Emphasis on its Influence on Facial Reconstruction Procedures

Anu V. Ranade, Rajalakshmi Rai, Ashwin R. Rai, Teresa Joy, Jiji P. Janardhanan, Prameela M. Dass

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


As the facial transplantation procedures are becoming more popular and frequent in recent years, for repairing facial trauma, variations in the veins of head and neck needs to be reported time and again. This study was undertaken to examine the course and drainage pattern of the facial vein and external jugular vein on this context and emphasize its surgical implications. The authors studied the head and neck region of 50 embalmed cadavers of both sexes to document normal and variant anatomy of facial, retromandibular, and external jugular veins. In 30% of the head and neck regions, different draining pattern of the above-mentioned veins were observed. One of the rare variation discovered was the splitting of the retromandibular vein to embrace the external carotid artery within the parotid gland. The data about variations in the termination of facial vein, retromandibular vein, and external jugular vein, as observed in the present study might be useful in avoiding accidental injury to these vessels during any surgical intervention in the face as well as neck. Level of Evidence: IV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)243-246
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 01-01-2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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