Dwarf Kingfisher-Inspired Bionic Flapping Wing and Its Aerodynamic Performance at Lowest Flight Speed

Mohd Firdaus Bin Abas, Balbir Singh, Kamarul Arifin Ahmad, Eddie Yin Kwee Ng, Tabrej Khan, Tamer A. Sebaey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This paper aims to understand the aerodynamic performance of a bio-inspired flapping-wing model using the dwarf Kingfisher wing as the bionic reference. The paper demonstrates the numerical investigation of the Kingfisher-inspired flapping-wing followed by experimental validation to comprehend the results fully and examine the aerodynamic characteristics at a flight velocity of 4.4 m/s, with wingbeat frequencies of 11 Hz, 16 Hz, and 21 Hz, at various angles of rotation ranging from 0° to 20° for each stroke cycle. The motivation to study the performance at low speed is based on lift generation as a challenge at low speed as per quasi-steady theory. The temporal evolution of the mean force coefficients has been plotted for various angles of rotation. The results show amplification of the maximum value for the cycle average lift and drag coefficient as the rotation angle increases. The history of vertical force and the flow patterns around the wing is captured in a full cycle with asymmetric lift development in a single stroke cycle. It is observed from the results that the downstroke generates more lift force in magnitude compared to the upstroke. In addition to the rotation angle, lift asymmetry is also affected by wing–wake interaction. Experimental results reveal that there is a stable leading-edge vortex developed in the downstroke, which sheds during the upstroke. An optimum lift and thrust flapping flight can be achieved, with a lift coefficient of 3.45 at 12°. The experimental and parametric study results also reveal the importance of passive rotation in wings for aerodynamic performance and wing flexibility as an important factor for lift generation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number123
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 09-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Molecular Medicine


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