EE-6S: an integrated approach for introducing early clinical exposure in the new Egyptian medical curriculum

Ansam Aly Seif, Hayam M. Eldamanhoury, Khaled Darahim, Dina N.K. Boulos, Nevine Bahaa, Ciraj A M, Saleena Ummer Velladath, M. Ganesh Kamath

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The electrocardiogram (ECG) is the primary diagnostic tool in cardiovascular diseases. Hence its interpretation is a core competency in medicine, where obvious deficiencies have been reported among learners. The aim of this study was to introduce the fundamentals of ECG knowledge and interpretation through early clinical exposure (ECE) based on a six-step approach for preclinical students (n = 110) and to study its influence on their knowledge and interpretation skills thereafter. The first step employed a blended learning format using didactic lectures on normal and pathological ECGs, each preceded by preinstructional videos. The second step focused on psychomotor skills and utilized laboratory exercises for ECG recording and interpretation. The third step focused on vertical integration, where the clinical relevance of the procedure was established with integrated lectures. The fourth step used the Moodle platform, where opportunities for peer interactions and clarifications by clinical faculty were made available. The fifth step incorporated clinical and diagnostic reasoning through cardiology ward visits and interpretation of patient ECGs. The sixth step was designed for critical thinking and problem solving through case-based discussions with peers and faculty. Students were assessed with multiple-choice questions and objective structured practical examination. Learner perceptions of the approach were evaluated with a feedback questionnaire and focus group discussion. Statistical analysis showed that ECE through a six-step approach significantly enhanced knowledge and interpretation of ECG as evidenced by the pre- and posttest scores. Analysis of the focus group data revealed that learner engagement and skills of critical thinking were enhanced along with diagnostic and clinical reasoning.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)109-120
Number of pages12
JournalAdvances in Physiology Education
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 01-03-2021


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