Effect of protuberances on the aerodynamic performance of a wind turbine blade–a review

Nancy Maurya, Anuj U. Patil, Pramod B. Salunkhe, Mahesh Varpe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper thoroughly reviews the influence of protuberances on the performance of a wind-turbine blade in terms of aerodynamic characteristics, power generation capability, and noise emission. It is observed that the protuberances are significantly useful in improving the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blades, especially in the post-stall regime and during fluctuating wind conditions, such as wind gusts. The protuberance amplitude was found to be the dominant parameter to influence the blade performance. The amplitude and wavelength were tested in the range of 2–12%c and 2–50%c, respectively. The highest wind turbine performance was observed at small amplitude and large wavelength in the pre-stall regime and at large amplitude and small wavelength in the post-stall regime. Incorporating leading edge protuberances may increase lift and power coefficients by 50 and 55%, respectively, and reduce noise emission by nearly 16 dB. With the increase in the angle of attack, the instability noise was found to change its form. The broadband noise forms at a lower angle of attack (~2°) which converts to the tonal noise at the angle of attack, 6.5°. The protuberances substantially alter the boundary layer flow, subsequently modifying the pressure and velocity field over the suction surface of the blade. A pair of vortices forms across a protuberance, which exchanges momentum with the boundary layer flow and helps delay/eliminate the flow separation. This flow separation control is responsible for the benefits as mentioned above.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3416-3431
Number of pages16
JournalEnergy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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