Effects of Urbanization on Urban Ecosystem Services (UESS)—A Framework

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Ecosystem services are a complex relationship between humans and nature. Interactions among these ecosystems are self-sustainable if they are unaltered. But, due to rapid urban expansion, changes in land use land cover (LULC), and anthropogenic activities, these ecosystem services (ES) are exerted under tremendous pressure. In the Mangaluru urban agglomeration, a coastal region of Karnataka, this study examined changes in land use and land cover (LULC). In order to categorize the spatiotemporal changes in LULC over the course of five decades, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2022, the study used the object-based image analysis (OBIA) technique. Deriving knowledge about various LULC classifications is the primary goal of this work. The study area is divided into five categories using the OBIA technique: built-up area, water body, forest area, agricultural land, and barren land. The categorization accuracy is assessed using images from Google Earth, SoI Topo maps, and on-the-ground confirmation. We discover that between 1980 and 2022, the area used for agriculture has decreased, the area used for forests has increased, the area used for buildings has dramatically increased, while the area used for water bodies and arid land has primarily remained the same. The results of the accuracy evaluation demonstrate that the LULC variations discussed in this work are legitimately correct and applicable to subsequent uses. In order to expand the city in the future, decision-makers may find the study's findings helpful in determining the best course of action. This study also demonstrates GIS and remote sensing (RS) in LULC applications, particularly in the coastal regions.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRecent Research on Geotechnical Engineering, Remote Sensing, Geophysics and Earthquake Seismology - Proceedings of the 2nd MedGU, Marrakesh 2022 Volume 3
EditorsMourad Bezzeghoud, Zeynal Abiddin Ergüler, Jesús Rodrigo-Comino, Mahesh Kumar Jat, Roohollah Kalatehjari, Deepak Singh Bisht, Arkoprovo Biswas, Helder I. Chaminé, Afroz Ahmad Shah, A.E. Radwan, Jasper Knight, Dionysia Panagoulia, Amjad Kallel, Veysel Turan, Haroun Chenchouni, Attila Ciner, Matteo Gentilucci
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages5
ISBN (Print)9783031487149
Publication statusPublished - 2024
Event2nd International conference on Mediterranean Geosciences Union, MedGU 2022 - Marrakech, Morocco
Duration: 27-11-202230-11-2022

Publication series

NameAdvances in Science, Technology and Innovation
ISSN (Print)2522-8714
ISSN (Electronic)2522-8722


Conference2nd International conference on Mediterranean Geosciences Union, MedGU 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Architecture
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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