To date, although the microscopic alterations present in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been well known for over a century only a handful of symptomatic treatments have been developed which are a far cry from a full cure providing volatile benefits. In this context, the intervention of stem cell therapy (SCT) has been proposed as an auxiliary treatment for AD as suggested by the rising number of pre-clinical studies that stem cell engraftment could provide an exciting future treatment regimen against neurodegeneration. Although, most of the primary enthusiasm about this approach was based on replacing deteriorating neurons, the latest studies have implied that the positive modulations fostered by stem cells are fuelled by bystander effects. Present review provides a detailed update on stem cell therapy for AD along with meticulous discussion regarding challenges in developing different stem cells from an aspect of experiment to clinical research and their potential in the milieu of AD hallmarks. Specifically, we focus and provide in depth view on recent advancements in the discipline of SCT aiming to repopulate or regenerate the degenerating neuronal circuitry in AD using stem-cell-on-a-chip and 3D bioprinting techniques. The focus is specifically on the successful restoration of cognitive functions upon engraftment of stem cells on in vivo models for the benefit of the current researchers and their understanding about the status of SCT in AD and finally summarizing on what future holds for SCT in the treatment of AD.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmaceutical Science