Environmental sanitation and health facilities in schools of an urban city of south India

Nitin Joseph, Unnikrishnan Bhaskaran, Ganesh Kumar Saya, Shashidhar M. Kotian, Ritesh G. Menezes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Environmental sanitation and health facilities in schools are an important public health issue. Aims: To assess the school environment, sanitation and health related facilities and to compare the availability of these facilities between government, aided and private schools. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was done in 30 schools in Mangalore city of south India in February 2010. Results: Out of the 30 schools surveyed, four were government, 12 were aided and 14 were private schools. Overcrowding was seen in one third of schools. The recommended minus desks was lacking in 23(76.7%) and chairs with back rest was lacking in 11(36.7%) schools. More than a quarter of schools had no drinking water purification facility. Water storage units were not cleaned periodically in 6(20%) schools. Quarter of all government schools and half of all aided schools had no dining hall for serving mid-day meals. Toilets were not adequate in 10(33.3%) and it was not separated for boys and girls in 8(26.7%) schools. Four of the surveyed schools had no medical examination of students and in 13(43.3%) schools daily morning inspection by teachers was not done. Hardly few schools had staff trained to deal with medical emergencies and in counselling activities. None of the schools had an immunization register. Although the performance scores between the types of schools did not differ significantly, the combined performance of only private schools were found to be satisfactory. Conclusion: A good number of schools in this urban area were found to be falling short of several essential requirements regarding sanitation and health facilities which needs to be rectified.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)431-435
Number of pages5
JournalAnnals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 09-2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Medicine
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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