Type 2 diabetes (T2D) associated health disparities among different ethnicities have long been known. Ethnic variations also exist in T2D related comorbidities including insulin resistance, vascular complications and drug response. Genetic heterogeneity, dietary patterns, nutrient metabolism and gut microbiome composition attribute to ethnic disparities in both manifestation and progression of T2D. These factors differentially regulate the rate of metabolism and metabolic health. Metabolomics studies have indicated significant differences in carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolism among ethnicities. Interestingly, genetic variations regulating lipid and amino acid metabolism might also contribute to inter-ethnic differences in T2D. Comprehensive and comparative metabolomics analysis between ethnicities might help to design personalized dietary regimen and newer therapeutic strategies. In the present review, we explore population based metabolomics data to identify inter-ethnic differences in metabolites and discuss how (a) genetic variations, (b) dietary patterns and (c) microbiome composition may attribute for such differences in T2D.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry