Evaluation of salivary tumor necrosis factor α as a diagnostic biomarker in oral submucosal fibrosis and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx: a cross sectional observational study

Sabiha Abdul Aziz Shaikh, Ceena Denny E, Reshma Kumarchandra, Srikant Natarajan, Johan Sunny, Nandita Shenoy, Nandita K.P

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is known to be associated with chronic inflammation, and its expression has been shown to increase in advanced cancers. Chronic inflammation is a characteristic feature of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), which is a potentially malignant disorder (PMD). Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is associated with considerable mortality and morbidity and an early detection or monitoring would greatly help in achieving an effective cure. TNF-α was thus evaluated for use as a biomarker in the present study according to the stage of OSMF and histological grade of SCC in the oral cavity and oropharynx. Methods: This study included 45 patients divided into 3 groups—OSMF group, SCC group and control group—each comprising 15 participants. Saliva samples were collected from each patient, and salivary TNF-α levels were estimated using an ELISA kit. Results: Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences in TNF-α levels among the OSMF, SCC and control groups; however, there was an increase in the salivary TNF-α level in patients with stage 3 disease according to the clinical stage of OSMF, for which the p value was 0.027. Discussion: An increase in the TNF-α concentration with increasing clinical stage suggested a role for TNF-α in the spread of OSMF involvement in anatomical structures of the oral cavity and oropharynx. No significant difference in salivary TNF-α levels was noted among the OSMF, SCC and control groups. Conclusion: The study showed a positive correlation of TNF-α with increasing stages of OSMF but was not a reliable biomarker in the categorization of the same.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1375162
JournalFrontiers in Oral Health
Volume5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oral Surgery
  • Dentistry (miscellaneous)
  • Periodontics

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