Gait Variability and IEMG Variation in Gastrocnemius and Medial Hamstring Muscles on Inclined Even and Uneven Planes

V. M. Akhil, V. Jobin, M. Ashmi, P. K. Rajendrakumar, K. S. Sivanandan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: The deviation in gait cycle due to trunk acceleration and muscle activity on even and uneven inclined planes should be analyzed for the design of lower limb exoskeletons. This study compares the gait variability of gastrocnemius and medial hamstring muscle activity variation of twenty young male adults on inclined even and uneven planes. Material and methods: The individuals walked on a long, 10° inclined even and uneven plane in both up-the-plane and down-the-plane directions at their preferred speed (average speed is 1.2 m/s). Gait variability during walking was calculated using an average standard deviation of trunk acceleration and the significance of change was calculated using two-way-ANOVA. For studying the difference between integrated electromyography (IEMG) values of walking on even and uneven planes, two parameters Normalized IEMG Percentage (NIP) and IEMG Variation Percentage (IVP) were chosen for the analysis. Results: The results strongly agree with the hypothesis that gait variability hikes in the vertical direction of subject with a p-value of 0.04. The IEMG range of medial-hamstring muscle while walking on even and uneven plane is not highly significant for swing (0.44) as well as stance phase (0.47). While walking on an inclined uneven plane, the response of gastrocnemius muscle indicated the variation of NIP between 14.31% to 64.63%. It was observed that NIP and IEMG values of medial-hamstring muscles during backward walking have a resemblance. Conclusion: Trunk variability had a significant change in the vertical direction (V) and was insignificant in medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) orientations for both even and uneven inclined planes during forward and reverse walking. The muscle activity of gastrocnemius and medial-hamstring muscles does not have sound variations while walking on the inclined uneven plane.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)447 - 455
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 10-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering


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