Gender Differences in Clinical Characteristics and Comorbidities in Bipolar Disorder: a Study from South India

Manjunadh Pillai, Ravindra Neelakanthappa Munoli, Samir Kumar Praharaj, Shripathy M. Bhat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The clinical features and course of bipolar disorder differ between women and men; however, studies are limited in Indian population. The objective of this study was to identify gender differences in patients with bipolar disorder. This was a cross-sectional, hospital-based observational study conducted over a period of 25 months. The sample consisted of 110 males and 90 females with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder according to ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria for Research. Socio-demographic and clinical details were collected using semi-structured proforma. All patients were evaluated on Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus, Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale and Clinical Global Impression. Sample consisted of 55% men and 45% women. The total number of episodes was similar between genders, however, the number of manic episodes (p = 0.004) was significantly more in males and the number of depressive (p = 0.003) and mixed episodes (p = 0.018) were significantly more in females. Majority of males had first episode of mania, whereas, first episode in females were mostly depressive (p < 0.001). Comorbid physical disorders were seen in 61.1% females and 40% males. Bipolar disorder subtype, episode types and number varied across gender. Co-morbid hypothyroidism, migraine, and obesity are seen more often in women and substance use was higher in men.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)693-702
JournalPsychiatric Quarterly
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 06-2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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