Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) represents a significant visual impairment among individuals with diabetes, leading to a dramatic reduction in visual acuity and potentially resulting in irreversible vision loss. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), a technique that produces high-resolution retinal images, plays a vital role in the clinical assessment of this condition. Physicians typically rely on OCT B-Scan images to evaluate DME severity. However, manual interpretation of these images is susceptible to errors, which can lead to detrimental consequences, such as misdiagnosis and improper treatment strategies. Hence, there is a critical need for more reliable diagnostic methods. This study aims to address this gap by proposing an automated model based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) to generate OCT B-Scan images of DME. The model synthesizes images from patients' baseline OCT B-Scan images, which could potentially enhance the robustness of DME detection systems. We employ five distinct GANs in this study: Deep Convolutional GAN, Conditional GAN, CycleGAN, StyleGAN2, and StyleGAN3, drawing comparisons across their performance. Subsequently, the hyperparameters of the best-performing GAN are fine-tuned using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to produce more realistic OCT images. This comparative analysis not only serves to improve the detection of DME severity using OCT images but also provides insights into the appropriate choice of GANs for the effective generation of realistic OCT images from the baseline OCT datasets.
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