Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Turner Syndrome (45XO) Fetal Cells for Downstream Modelling of Neurological Deficits Associated with the Syndrome

Nivedha Veerasubramanian, Vaishnavi Karthikeyan, Sridevi Hegde, Anandh Dhanushkodi, Shagufta Parveen

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2 Citations (Scopus)


Chromosomal aneuploidies cause severe congenital malformations including central nervous system malformations and fetal death. Prenatal genetic screening is purely diagnostic and does not elucidate disease mechanism. Although cells from aneuploid fetuses are valuable biological material bearing the chromosomal aneuploidy, these cells are short lived, limiting their use for downstream research experiments. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) models is an effective method of cell preparation for perpetual conservation of aneuploid traits. They are self-renewing and differentiate into specialized cells reminiscent of embryonic development. Thus, iPSCs serve as excellent tools to study early developmental events. Turner syndrome (TS) is a rare condition associated with a completely or partially missing X chromosome. The syndrome is characterized by infertility, short stature, endocrine, metabolic, autoimmune and cardiovascular disorders and neurocognitive defects. The following protocol describes isolation and culturing of fibroblasts from TS (45XO) fetal tissue, generation of integration free TSiPSCs through delivery of episomal reprogramming plasmids by nucleofection followed by characterization. The reprogramming TSiPSCs were initially screened by live cell alkaline phosphatase staining followed by extensive probing for pluripotency biomarkers. Selected colonies were mechanically dissected, passaged several times and stable self-renewing cells were used for further experiments. The cells expressed pluripotency transcription factors OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, cell surface markers SSEA 4 and TRA1-81 typical of pluripotent stem cells. The original 45XO karyotype was retained post reprogramming. The TSiPSCs were able to form embryoid bodies and differentiate into cells of endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm expressing lineage specific biomarkers ((SRY BOX17), (MYOSIN VENTRICULAR HEAVY CHAINα/β), (βIII TUBULIN)). The exogenous episomal plasmids were lost spontaneously and not detected after passage 15 in cells. These TSiPSCs are a valuable cellular resource for modelling defective molecular and cellular neurodevelopment causing neurocognitive deficits associated with Turner syndrome.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere62240
JournalJournal of visualized experiments : JoVE
Issue number178
Publication statusPublished - 04-12-2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Neuroscience
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Immunology and Microbiology


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