Heel-ball (HB) index: Sexual dimorphism of a new index from foot dimensions

Kewal Krishan, Tanuj Kanchan, Neelam Passi, John A. Dimaggio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


Abstract: The present research is aimed to introduce Heel-ball (HB) index from foot dimensions and determine whether this index exhibits sexual dimorphism. The study was conducted on a sample of 303 North Indian individuals (154 men, and 149 women) aged between 13 and 18years. The stature, body weight, foot breadth at the ball (BBAL), and foot breadth at heel (BHEL) were measured. The HB index was derived by the formula BHEL×100/BBAL. Although the mean HB index was larger in women in both feet it showed statistically significant sex differences in the right foot only. The study shows that while the foot dimensions show a positive correlation with stature and weight, the HB index is independent of the stature and weight of an individual. This novel index (HB index) may be utilized in sex determination when a part of the foot is brought for medico-legal investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)172-175
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Forensic Sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 01-01-2012
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Genetics


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