High-throughput and area-efficient architectures for image encryption using PRINCE cipher

Abhiram Kumar, Pulkit Singh, K. Abhimanyu Kumar Patro, Bibhudendra Acharya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Internet of Things (IoT) has gained popularity in recent years and has engulfed nearly every industry. The widespread use of numerous ubiquitous computing devices in the low-resource domain has resulted in a new set of privacy and security concerns. To address the problem of security in resource-constrained devices, many lightweight algorithms have been developed. This paper proposes optimized hardware implementations of the lightweight PRINCE block cipher, with the aim of providing adequate security while maximizing resource efficiency. The proposed architecture uses fewer resources and provides a reasonable trade-off between area footprint and efficiency. In the proposed unrolled pipelined architecture, the encryption round is divided into three sub-stages, with registers inserted in between. Using this design approach, the operating frequency is greatly improved. As a result, this architecture adapts itself effectively to high-performance applications. This paper also proposes serial-based and round-based architectures for resource-constrained devices. The proposed unrolled sub pipeline PRINCE block cipher is implemented on the Virtex-6-FF784 and Virtex-4-FF668 FPGA device families and achieved substantial improvements in throughput of 13.057% and 113%, respectively, as well as efficiency of 8.109% and 113.734% respectively. The proposed architecture is evaluated on a variety of grayscale images, and the security analysis is performed using MATLAB software. Aside from that, the proposed architecture uses the CBC-mode of operation. The security analysis and encryption outputs show that the proposed architecture is an effective choice for image encryption and provides sufficient security to the cipher images.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)224-235
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 05-2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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